A downside of automation
February 15, 2012
Right now in the sysadmin world it probably qualifies as heresy to say bad things about the idea of automating your work. But unfortunately for us, there actually are downsides to doing so even if we don't notice them a lot of the time.
The one I'm going to talk about today is that when you automate something, you increase the number of things that people in your team need to know. Suppose that you get tired of maintaining your Apache configuration files by hand, so now you put them in a Chef configuration. You've gone from a situation where all you need to know to configure your Apache is Apache configuration itself to a situation where now you need to know Apache configuration, using Chef, and how you're using Chef to configure your Apache. Any time you automate you go from just needing to know one thing, the underlying thing you're dealing with, to needing to know three or so; you still need to know the underlying thing, but now you also need to know the automation system in general and how you're using it in specific.
(You can condense this by one layer of knowledge if you're not using a general automation system, because then the last two bits condense to one. But you probably don't want to do that.)
This can of course be compounded on itself further. Are you auto-generating DHCP configurations from an asset database and then distributing them through Puppet? Well, you've got a lot of layers to know about.
Some people will say that you don't need to really know all of these layers (especially once you reach the level of auto-generated things and other multi-layer constructs). The drawback of this is that not knowing all of the layers turns you into a push-button monkey; you don't actually understand your system any more, you can just push buttons to get results as long as everything works (or doesn't go too badly wrong).
All of this suggests a way to decide when automation is going to be worth it: just compare the amount of time that it'll take for people to learn the automation system and how you're using it with how much time they would spend doing things by hand. You can also compare more elaborate automation systems to less elaborate ones this way (and new elaborate 'best practices' systems to the simple ones you already have).
(One advantage of using a well known automation system such as Chef or Puppet is that you can hope to hire people who already know the automation system in general, cutting out one of the levels of learning. This is also a downside of having your own elaborate automation system; you are guaranteed that new people will have to learn it.)
By the way (and as is traditional), the people who designed and built the automation system are in a terrible position to judge how complex it is and how hard it is to learn, or even to see this issue. You're usually not going to see the system as complex or hard to keep track of, because to you it isn't; as the builder, you're just too close to the system and too immersed in it to see it from an outside perspective.
PS: Automation can have other benefits in any particular situation that are strong enough to overcome this disadvantage (including freeing sysadmins from drudgery that will burn them out). But it's always something to remember.
(This is closely related to the cost of automation but is not quite the same thing; in that entry I was mostly talking about locally developed automation instead of using standard automation tools.)
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