How to get as much of your program byte-compiled as possible
The CPython interpreter doesn't run Python code directly, but first
compiles it to bytecode. Because this parsing
and compiling steps are somewhat time-consuming, CPython optimizes
things by saving the compiled bytecodes into
.pyc files (or
files if you used the
-O switch to
python), and trying to use
them when possible.
This speed increase doesn't necessarily matter all that much for a
program that runs a long time, but it does matter for typical utility
programs, which only run for a short time and may get executed a lot.
(This is especially so if they have a lot of code that is only used
occasionally, so that Python has a lot of code to compile that it will
never actually run.)
One of the less well known things about CPython (at least on Unix) is that
it only loads bytecode files when you
import modules. If
you just run a file of Python code with '
python file.py' (which is
equivalent to a script that starts with '
does not load
file.pyc even if it exists, and it certainly won't
create it. So if you have a big program full of Python code, you're
paying the cost to byte-compile it each time you run it.
The way around this is obvious: put all of your program's code in a
module, and then have your 'program' just be a tiny bit of Python
imports the module and then calls your main entry point. (Of course, this may then expose you to search path
The one other thing to watch out for is that the user running the Python
program may not have enough permissions on the directory with the
Python modules to write
.pyc files there. If this is the case, you
may need to 'pre-compile' the modules by running the script once as a
user with enough permissions (or just manually
import'ing them in an