Python class definitions can be nested
Here is something that I was surprised to discover the other day: you can nest class definitions inside other
things. In a way this is just what I should have expected given that
class is an executable statement in Python, just like
def is (cf), but I still found it surprising to see it
At least in the simple case, the only thing that nesting a class inside another class does is make the first class's name harder to get to; the inner class has no special access to the outer class's namespace or the like. I tend to think that the uses for this are at best somewhat obscure, since it is not very often that you need one class to appear inside another class's namespace.
Class definitions nested inside functions are potentially more useful, because they act as closures. Both the class definition itself and its methods can access variables from the outer function, just as inner functions can. As usual, these outer function variables are read only (well, non-assignable).
(Note that as with all closures, this is a great way to accidentally leak memory by keeping objects alive when you didn't expect it.)
In both cases, you can't tell that these are nested inner classes by
any straightforward inspection of the resulting class or instances.
They don't have special names or any other marker, and will show up in
debugging output as if they were ordinary classes defined at the module
level. Given class definitions nested inside functions, this can create
the amusing situation where two things that claim to be the same class
repr() output are not; each time you call the function you create
a different class, although they all have the same name.
(Since class definitions are evaluated only once, a class nested inside another class does not create this situation.)