Why I do unit tests from inside my modules, not outside them
In reading about how to do unit testing, one of the divisions I've run into is between people who believe that you should unit test your code strictly through its external API boundaries and people who will unit test code 'inside' the module itself, taking advantage of internal features and so on. The usual arguments I've seen for doing unit tests from outside the module are that your API working is what people really care about and this avoids coupling your tests too closely to your implementation, so that you don't have the friction of needing to revise tests if you revise the internals. I don't follow this view; I write my unit tests inside my modules, although of course I test the public API as much as possible.
The primary reason why I want to test from the inside is that this gives me much richer and more direct access to the internal operation of my code. To me, a good set of unit tests involves strongly testing hypotheses about how the code behaves. It is not enough to show that it works for some cases and then call it a day; I want to also poke the dark corners and the error cases. The problem with going through the public API for this is that it is an indirect way of testing things down in the depths of my code. In order to reach down far enough, I must put together a carefully contrived scenario that I know reaches through the public API to reach the actual code I want to test (and in the specific way I want to test it). This is extra work, it's often hard and requires extremely artificial setups, and it still leaves my tests closely coupled to the actual implementation of my module code. Forcing myself to work through the API alone is basically testing theater.
(It's also somewhat dangerous because the coupling of my tests to the module's implementation is now far less obvious. If I change the module implementation without changing the tests, the tests may well still keep passing but they'll no longer be testing what I think they are. Oops.)
Testing from inside the module avoids all of this. I can directly test that internal components of my code work correctly without having to contrive peculiar and fragile scenarios that reach them through the public API. Direct testing of components also lets me immediately zero in on the problem if one of them fails a test, instead of forcing me to work backwards from a cascade of high level API test failures to find the common factor and realize that oh, yeah, a low level routine probably isn't working right. If I change the implementation and my tests break, that's okay; in a way I want them to break so that I can revise them to test what's important about the new implementation.
(I also believe that directly testing internal components is likely to lead to cleaner module code due to needing less magic testing interfaces exposed or semi-exposed in my APIs. If this leads to dirtier testing code, that's fine with me. I strongly believe that my module's public API should not have anything that is primarily there to let me test the code.)