Wandering Thoughts archives

2017-03-22

Setting the root login's 'full name' to identify the machine that sent email

Yesterday I wrote about making sure you can identify what machine sent you a status email, and the comments Sotiris Tsimbonis shared a brilliant yet simple solution to this problem:

We change the gecos info for this purpose.

chfn -f "$HOSTNAME root" root

Take it from me; this is beautiful genius (so much so that both we and another group here immediately adopted it). It's so simple yet still extremely effective, because almost everything that sends email does so using programs like mail that will fill out the From: header using the login's GECOS full name from /etc/passwd. You get email that looks like:

From: root@<your-domain> (hebikera root)

This does exactly what we want by immediately showing the machine that the email is from. In fact many mail clients these days will show you only the 'real name' from the From: header by default, not the actual email address (I'm old-fashioned, so I see the traditional full From: header).

This likely works with any mail-sending program that doesn't require completely filled out email headers. It definitely works in the Postfix sendmail cover program for 'sendmail -t' (as well as the CentOS 6 and 7 mailx, which supplies the standard mail command).

(As an obvious corollary, you can also use this trick for any other machine-specific accounts that send email; just give them an appropriate GECOS 'full name' as well.)

There's two perhaps obvious cautions here. First, if you ever rename machines you have to remember to re-chfn the root login and any other such logins to have the correct hostname in them. It's probably worth creating an officially documented procedure for renaming machines, since there are other things you'll want to update as well (you might even script it). Second, if you have some sort of password synchronization system you need it to leave root's GECOS full name alone (although it can update root's password). Fortunately ours already does this.

sysadmin/IdentifyMachineEmailByRootName written at 23:49:10; Add Comment

Making sure you can identify what machine sent you a status email

I wrote before about making sure that system email works, so that machines can do important things like tell you that their RAID array has lost redundancy and you should do something about that. In a comment on that entry, -dsr- brought up an important point, which is you want to be able to easily tell which machine sent you email.

In an ideal world, everything on every machine that sends out email reports would put the machine's hostname in, say, the Subject: header. This would give you reports like:

Subject: SMART error (FailedOpenDevice) detected on host: urd

In the real world you also get helpful emails like this:

Subject: Health

Device: /dev/sdn [SAT], FAILED SMART self-check. BACK UP DATA NOW!

The only way for us to tell which machine this came from was to look at either the Received: headers or the Message-ID, which is annoying.

There are at least two ways to achieve this. The first approach is what -dsr- said in the comment, which is to make every machine send its email to a unique alias on your system. This unfortunately has at least two limitations. The first is that it somewhat clashes with a true 'null client' setup, where your machines dump absolutely all of their email on the server. A straightforward null client does no local rewriting of email at all, so to get this you need a smarter local mailer (and then you may need per-machine setup, hopefully automated). The second limitation is that there's no guarantee that all of the machine's email will be sent to root (and thus be subject to simple rewriting). It's at least likely, but machines have been known to send status email to all sorts of addresses.

(I'm going to assume that you can arrange for the unique destination alias to be visible in the To: header.)

You can somewhat get around this by doing some of the rewriting on your central mail handler machine (assuming that you can tell the machine email apart from regular user email, which you probably want to do anyways). This needs a relatively sophisticated configuration, but it probably can be done in something like Exim (which has quite powerful rewrite rules).

However, if you're going to do this sort of magic in your central mail handler machine, you might as well do somewhat different magic and alter the Subject: header of such email to include the host name. For instance, you might just add a general rule to your mailer so that all email from root that's going to root will have its Subject: altered to add the sending machine's hostname, eg 'Subject: [$HOSTNAME] ....'. Your central mail handler already knows what machine it received the email from (the information went into the Received header, for example). You could be more selective, for instance if you know that certain machines are problem sources (like the CentOS 7 machine that generated my second example) while others use software that already puts the hostname in (such as the Ubuntu machine that generated my first example).

I'm actually more attracted to the second approach than the first one. Sure, it's a big hammer and a bit crude, but it creates the easy to see marker of the source machine that I want (and it's a change we only have to make to one central machine). I'd feel differently if we routinely got status emails from various machines that we just filed away (in which case the alias-based approach would give us easy per-machine filing), but in practice our machines only email us occasionally and it's always going to be something that goes to our inboxes and probably needs to be dealt with.

sysadmin/IdentifyingStatusEmailSource written at 01:11:32; Add Comment


Page tools: See As Normal.
Search:
Login: Password:
Atom Syndication: Recent Pages, Recent Comments.

This dinky wiki is brought to you by the Insane Hackers Guild, Python sub-branch.