Wandering Thoughts archives


Modern versions of systemd can cause an unmount storm during shutdowns

One of my discoveries about Ubuntu 20.04 is that my test machine can trigger the kernel's out of memory killing during shutdown. My test virtual machine has 4 GB of RAM and 1 GB of swap, but it also has 347 NFS mounts, and after some investigation, what appears to be happening is that in the 20.04 version of systemd (systemd 245 plus whatever changes Ubuntu has made), systemd now seems to try to run umount for all of those filesystems all at once (which also starts a umount.nfs process for each one). On 20.04, this is apparently enough to OOM my test machine.

(My test machine has the same amount of RAM and swap as some of our production machines, although we're not running 20.04 on any of them.)

On the one hand, this is exactly what systemd said it was going to do in general. Systemd will do as much in parallel as possible and these NFS mounts are not nested inside each other, so they can all be unmounted at once. On the other hand, this doesn't scale; there's a certain point where running too many processes at once just thrashes the machine to death even if it doesn't drive it out of memory. And on the third hand, this doesn't happen to us on earlier versions of Ubuntu LTS; either their version of systemd doesn't start as many unmounts at once or their version of umount and umount.nfs requires enough fewer resources that we can get away with it.

Unfortunately, so far I haven't found a way to control this in systemd. There appears to be no way to set limits on how many unmounts systemd will try to do at once (or in general how many units it will try to stop at once, even if that requires running programs). Nor can we readily modify the mount units, because all of our NFS mounts are done through shell scripts by directly calling mount; they don't exist in /etc/fstab or as actual .mount units.

(One workaround would be to set up a new systemd unit that acts before filesystems are unmounted and runs a 'umount -t nfs', because that doesn't try to do all of the unmounts at once. Getting the ordering right may be a little bit tricky.)

linux/SystemdShutdownUnmountStorm written at 21:46:24; Add Comment

How to set up an Ubuntu 20.04 ISO image to auto-install a server

In Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, Canonical has switched to an all new and not yet fully finished system for automated server installs. Yesterday I wrote some notes about the autoinstall configuration file format, but creating a generally functional configuration file is only the first step; now you need to set up something to install it. Around here we use DVDs, or at least ISO images, in our install setup, so that's what I've focused on.

The first thing you need (besides your autoinstall configuration file) is a suitable ISO image. At the moment, the only x86 server image that's available for Ubuntu 20.04 is the 'live server' image, so that's what I used (see here for the 18.04 differences between the plain server image and the 'live server' one, but then Ubuntu 20.04 is all in on the 'live' version). To make this ISO into a self-contained ISO that will boot with your autoinstall configuration, we need to add some data files to the ISO and then modify the isolinux boot configuration.

The obvious data file we have to add to the ISO is our autoconfigure file. However, it has to be set up in a directory for itself and a companion file, and each has to be called special names. Let's say that the directory within the ISO that we're going to use for this is called /cslab/inst. Then our autoinstall configuration file must be called /cslab/inst/user-data, and we need an empty /cslab/inst/meta-data file beside it. At install time, the path to this directory is /cdrom/cslab/inst, because the ISO is mounted on /cdrom.

(I put our configuration in a subdirectory here because we put additional bootstrap files under /cslab that are copied onto the system as part of the autoinstall.)

The isolinux configuration file we need to modify in the ISO is /isolinux/txt.cfg. We want to modify the kernel command line to add a new argument, 'ds=nocloud;s=/cdrom/cslab/inst/'. So:

default live
label live
  menu label ^Install Ubuntu Server
  kernel /casper/vmlinuz
  append   initrd=/casper/initrd quiet ds=nocloud;s=/cdrom/cslab/inst/ ---

(You can modify the 'safe graphics' version of the boot entry as well if you think you may need it. I probably should do that to our isolinux txt.cfg.)

The purpose and parameters of the 'ds=' argument are described here. This particular set of parameters tells the autoinstaller to find our configuration file in /cslab/inst/ on the ISO, where it will automatically look for both 'user-data' and 'meta-data'.

Some sources will tell you to also add an 'autoinstall' parameter to the kernel command line. You probably don't want to do this, and it's only necessary if you want a completely noninteractive install that doesn't even stop to ask you if you're sure you want to erase your disks. If you have some 'interactive-sections' specified in your autoinstall configuration file, this is not applicable; you're already having the autoinstall stop to ask you some questions.

For actually modifying the ISO image, what I do is prepare a scratch directory, unpack the pristine ISO image into it with 7z (because we have 7z installed and it will unpack ISOs, among many other things), modify the scratch directory, and then build a new ISO image with:

mkisofs -o cslab_ubuntu_20.04.iso \
  -ldots -allow-multidot -d -r -l -J \
  -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \
  -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat \

isohybrid cslab_ubuntu_20.04.iso

(isohybrid makes this ISO bootable as a USB stick. Well, theoretically bootable. I haven't actually tried this for 20.04.)

You can automate all of this with some shell scripts that take an ISO image and a directory tree of things to merge into it (overwriting existing files) and generate a new image.

linux/Ubuntu2004ISOAutoinst written at 00:54:54; Add Comment

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