from module import ...' is not doing what you may expect
There are a number of reasons to avoid things like '
from module import
*'; for instance, it can be confusing later on
and you can import more than you expect. But if
you're doing this in the context of, say, just splitting a big source
file apart it's tempting to say that these
are not really problems. You're not going to be confused about where
things come from because you're only importing everything from your own
source files (and you're not even thinking of them as modules), and it's
perfectly okay for there to be namespace contamination because that's
kind of the point. But even then there are traps, because '
import ...' is not really doing what you might think it's doing.
There's two possible misconceptions here. If you're doing '
module import *' within your own code, often what you want is for
there to be one conjoined namespace where everything lives, both
stuff from the other 'module' (really just a file) and stuff from
your 'module' (the current file). If you're doing '
import A', it's easy (and tempting) to think that when you write
A in your code, Python is basically automatically rewriting
it to really be '
module.A' for you. Neither is what is actually
going on in Python, although things can often look like it.
What a '
from module' import really does is it copies things
from one module namespace into another. More specifically it
copies the current bindings of names. You can
think of '
from module import *' as doing something roughly like
import module _this = globals() for n in dir(module): _this[n] = getattr(module, n) del _this del module
(This code does not avoid internal names, doesn't respect
and so on. It's a conceptual illustration.)
There are still two completely separate module namespaces, yours
and the namespace of
module; you have just copied a bunch of
things from the
module namespace into yours under the same name
(or just some things, if you're doing '
from module import A, B').
Functions and classes from
module are still using their module
namespace, even if a reference to some or all of them has been
copied into your module.
(As a corollary to this, things from
module mostly can't refer
to anything from your module namespace. This is easy to see since
you can't have circular imports; if you're importing
get at its namespace, it can't be importing you to get at yours.
(Yes, there are odd ways around this.))
One reason why this matter is that if functions or classes from
module update stuff in their module namespace, you may or may not
pick it up in your own module. For example, consider the following
code in some other module:
gvar = 10func setit(newval): global gvar gvar = newval
gvar that you see in your own module will forever be '
no matter what calls to
setit() have been made. However, code in
the other module will see a different value for
Not all sorts of updates will do this, of course. If
gvar is a
dictionary and code just adds, changes, and deletes keys in it,
everyone will see the same
gvar. The illusion of a shared namespace
can hold up, but it is ultimately only an illusion and it can be
fragile. (And unless you already know Python well, it isn't necessarily
easy to see where and when it's going to break down.)
Sidebar: An additional bit of possible weirdness
There are some situations where a module's namespace is more or
less overwritten wholesale; the obvious case is
reload() of the
module. If you
reload() a module that has been the subject of
from module import ...', all of those bare imports are now broken,
or at least not updated themselves. You can get into very odd
situations this way (especially considering what reloading a
module really does).