There are (at least) two sorts of DNS blocklists
Here is a trite and obvious thing that I never the less feel like writing down: in practice, there are (at least) two sorts of DNS anti-spam blocklists. Since I want to use value neutral terms here, let us call these 'simple' and 'complex' blocklists.
The operation of a simple DNSBL is, well, simple. If it sees spam from an IP, it lists the IP (or if it sees whatever is the DNSBL's idea of 'bad stuff'). Usually the IP gets automatically delisted after a while, but in some DNSBLs the listing lasts forever unless someone takes action to have it get cleared, appealed, or whatever.
A complex DNSBL attempts to have a more complex balancing criteria for adding listings than simple presence of spam; for instance, it may somehow assess how much apparently legitimate traffic it's seen from the source IP as well as spam volume. A complex DNSBL is sometimes going to be slower to list an IP than a simple DNSBL.
A simple DNSBL does not have 'false positives' as such (assuming that it's honestly run), but that's because a listing means something very narrow; it means that the IP did a bad thing within the time horizon. People who reject email based on a listing in a simple DNSBL may have false positives in that rejection, though, because an IP doing a bad thing once doesn't necessarily mean that it will do it every time. Complex DNSBLs can have false positives because they're fundamentally intended to assert that the email you're getting is probably bad. Good operators of complex DNSBLs attempt to minimize such false positives.
To give an example of each, the Spamhaus SBL is a complex DNSBL (or at least generally it is). The CBL is a simple DNSBL, but one that (theoretically) uses a very narrow listing criteria that is very strongly correlated with sending only spam.
Unfortunately not all DNSBLs make it clear what sort of DNSBL they are in their description (or sometimes they wave their hands about it a bit). At least at the moment, one quite strong signal that you are dealing with a simple DNSBL is if it ever lists one of GMail's outgoing mail servers.
(I feel that rejecting email based on a simple DNSBL is not necessarily a mistake, but the sidebar attempting to explain this got long enough that it's going to be another entry.)