A small drawback to Wietse Venema's TCP Wrappers
Wietse Venema's tcpwrappers is mostly used for controlling access to services run from inetd or your local equivalent, where you are not expecting high performance or high load. However, it can be built as a library that you link your daemon against, and some daemons are.
(At least on Linux, both OpenSSH and the portmapper are built this way.)
It turns out that there is a small drawback to using tcpwrappers this way in some sorts of high-performance applications, specifically in application where you expect a lot of connections or want to be able to dispatch connections very fast. The drawback is this:
Tcpwrappers does no caching of the
Every time you call the tcpwrappers routines to check for host access, they open, read, and parse the files completely from scratch. If your files are small, this doesn't matter, but if they're large, you may be burning more CPU time on this than you expect.
(You're very unlikely to be hit with disk IO for reading the files; if you're getting any sort of connection volume they'll be in the filesystem cache.)
One useful thing to know for best performance is that tcpwrappers deals with the files strictly a line at a time (instead of parsing the entire file, then evaluating the parsed rules). This implies that it's worth putting the rules for the most common cases first if you have big files.
hosts.deny are probably uncommon, but I once
hosts.deny file that was over 4,000 lines long. That was
admittedly a special case, and eventually got replaced with better