Memories of MGR
I recently got into a discussion of MGR on Twitter (via), which definitely brings back memories. MGR is an early Unix windowing system, originally dating from 1987 to 1989 (depending on whether you go from the Usenix presentation, when people got to hear about it, to the comp.sources.unix, when people could get their hands on it). If you know the dates for Unix windowing systems you know that this overlaps with X (both X10 and then X11), which is part of what makes MGR special and nostalgic and what gave it its peculiar appeal at the time.
MGR was small and straightforward at a time when that was not what other Unix window systems were (I'd say it was slipping away with X10 and X11, but let's be honest, Sunview was not small or straightforward either). Given that it was partially inspired by the Blit and had a certain amount of resemblance to it, MGR was also about as close as most people could come to the kind of graphical environment that the Bell Labs people were building in Research Unix.
(You could in theory get a DMD 5620, but in reality most people had far more access to Unix workstations that you could run MGR on that they did to a 5620.)
On a practical level, you could use MGR without having to set up a complicated environment with a lot of moving parts (or compile a big system). This generally made it easy to experiment with (on hardware it supported) and to keep it around as an alternative for people to try out or even use seriously. My impression is that this got a lot of people to at least dabble with MGR and use it for a while.
Part of MGR being small and straightforward was that it also felt like something that was by and for ordinary mortals, not the high peaks of X. It ran well on ordinary machines (even small machines) and it was small enough that you could understand how it worked and how to do things in it. It also had an appealingly simple model of how programs interacted with it; you basically treated it like a funny terminal, where you could draw graphics and do other things by sending escape sequences. As mentioned in this MGR information page, this made it network transparent by default.
MGR was not a perfect window system and in many ways it was a quite
limited one. But it worked well in the 'all the world's a terminal'
world of the late 1980s and early 1990s, when almost all of what
you did even with X was run
xterms, and it was often much faster
and more minimal than the (fancier) alternatives (like X), especially
on basic hardware.
Thinking of MGR brings back nostalgic memories of a simpler time in Unix's history, when things were smaller and more primitive but also bright and shiny and new and exciting in a way that's no longer the case (now they're routine and Unix is everywhere). My nostalgic side would love a version of MGR that ran in an X window, just so I could start it up again and play around with it, but at the same time I'd never use it seriously. Its day in the sun has passed. But it did have a day in the sun, once upon a time, and I remember those days fondly (even if I'm not doing well about explaining why).
(We shouldn't get too nostalgic about the old days. The hardware and software we have today is generally much better and more appealing.)
X's network transparency was basically free at the time
I recently wrote an entry about how X's network transparency has wound up mostly being a failure for various reasons. However, there is an important flipside to the story of X's network transparency, and that is that X's network transparency was almost free at the time and in the context it was created. Unlike the situation today, in the beginning X did not have to give up lots of performance or other things in order to get network transparency.
X originated in the mid 1980s and it was explicitly created to be portable across various Unixes, especially BSD-derived ones (because those were what universities were mostly using at that time). In the mid to late 1980s, Unix had very few IPC methods, especially portable ones. In particular, BSD systems did not have shared memory (it was called 'System V IPC' for the obvious reasons). BSD had TCP and Unix sockets, some System V machines had TCP (and you could likely assume that more would get it), and in general your safest bet was to assume some sort of abstract stream protocol and then allow for switchable concrete backends. Unsurprisingly, this is exactly what X did; the core protocol is defined as a bidirectional stream of bytes over an abstracted channel.
(And the concrete implementation of
$DISPLAY has always let
you specify the transport mechanism, as well as allowing your
local system to pick the best mechanism it has.)
Once you've decided that your protocol has to run over abstracted streams, it's not that much more work to make it network transparent (TCP provides streams, after all). X could have refused to make the byte order of the stream clear or required the server and the client to have access to some shared files (eg for fonts), but I don't think either would have been a particularly big win. I'm sure that it took some extra effort and care to make X work across TCP from a different machine, but I don't think it took very much.
(At the same time, my explanation here is probably a bit ahistorical. X's initial development seems relatively strongly tied to sometimes having clients on different machines than the display, which is not unreasonable for the era. But it doesn't hurt to get a feature that you want anyway for a low cost.)
I believe it's important here that X was intended to be portable across different Unixes. If you don't care about portability and can get changes made to your Unix, you can do better (for example, you can add some sort of shared memory or process to process virtual memory transfer). I'm not sure how the 1980s versions of SunView worked, but I believe they were very SunOS dependent. Wikipedia says SunView was partly implemented in the kernel, which is certainly one way to both share memory and speed things up.
PS: Sharing memory through
mmap() and friends was years in the
future at this point and required significant changes when it arrived.