What 'PID rollover' is on Unix systems

June 29, 2018

On Unix, everything is a process (generally including the threads inside processes, because that makes life simpler), and all processes have a PID (Process ID). In theory, the only special PID is PID 1, which is init, which has various jobs and which often causes your system to reboot if it dies (which isn't required even if most Unixes do it). Some Unixes also have a special 'PID 0', which is a master process in the kernel (on Illumos PID 0 is sched, and on FreeBSD it's called [kernel]). PIDs run from PID 1 upward to some maximum PID value and traditionally they're used strictly sequentially, so PID X is followed by PID X+1 and PID X+2 (even if some of the processes may be very short-lived).

(OpenBSD uses randomized PIDs by default; FreeBSD can turn them on by setting the kern.randompid sysctl, at least according to Internet searches. Normal Linux and Illumos are always sequential.)

Once, a very long time ago, Unix was a small thing and it ran on small, slow machines that liked to use 16-bit integers, ie the DEC PDP-11 series that was the home of Research Unix up through V7. In V7, PIDs were C shorts, which meant that they had a natural maximum value of 32767, and the kernel further constrained their maximum value to be 29,999. What happened when you hit that point? Well, let's just quote from newproc() in slp.c:

    * First, just locate a slot for a process
    * and copy the useful info from this process into it.
    * The panic "cannot happen" because fork has already
    * checked for the existence of a slot.
    if(mpid >= 30000) {
           mpid = 0;
           goto retry;

(The V7 kernel had a lot of gotos.)

This is PID rollover, or rather the code for it.

The magical mpid is a kernel global variable that holds the last PID that was used. When it hits 30,000, it rolls back over to 0, gets incremented to be 1, and then we'll find that PID 1 is in use already and try again (there's another loop for that). Since V7 ran on small systems, there was no chance that you could have 30,000 processes in existence at once; in fact the kernel had a much smaller hardcoded limit called NPROC, which was usually 150 (see param.h).

Ever since V7, most Unix systems have kept the core of this behavior. PIDs have a maximum value, often still 30,000 or so by default, and when your sequential PID reaches that point you go back to starting from 1 or a low number again. This reset is what we mean by PID rollover; like an odometer rolling over, the next PID rolls over from a high value to a low value.

(I believe that it's common for modern Unixes to reset PIDs to something above 1, so that the very low numbered PIDs can't be reused even if there's no process there any more. On Linux, this low point is a hardcoded value of 300.)

Since Unix is no longer running on hardware where you really want to use 16-bit integers, we could have a much larger maximum PID value if we wanted to. In fact I believe that all current Unixes use a C type for PIDs that's at least 32 bits, and perhaps 64 (both in the kernel and in user space). Sticking to signed 32 bit integers but using the full 2^31-1 integer range would give us enough PIDs that it would take more than 12 years of using a new PID every 500 microseconds before we had a PID rollover. However, Unixes are startlingly conservative so no one goes this high by default, although people have tinkered with the specific numbers.

(FreeBSD PIDs are officially 0 to 99999, per intro(2). For other Unixes, see this SE question and its answers.)

To be fair, one reason to keep PIDs small is that it makes output that includes PIDs shorter and more readable (and it makes it easier to tell PIDs apart). This is both command output, for things like ps and top, and also your logs when they include PIDs (such as syslog). Very few systems can have enough active or zombie processes that they'll have 30,000 or more PIDs in use at the same time, and for the rest of us, having a low maximum PID makes life slightly more friendly. Of course, we don't have to have PID rollover to have low maximum PIDs; we can just have PID randomization. But in theory PID rollover is just as good and it's what Unix has always done (for a certain value of 'Unix' and 'always', given OpenBSD and so on).

In the grand Unix tradition, people say that PID rollover doesn't have issues, it just exposes issues in other code that isn't fully correct. Such code includes anything that uses daemon PID files, code that assumes that PID numbers will always be ascending or that if process B is a descendant of process A, it will have a higher PID, and code that is vulnerable if you can successfully predict the PID of a to-be-created process and grab some resource with that number in it. Concerns like these are at least part of why OpenBSD likes PID randomization.

(See this interesting stackexchange answer about how Unixes behave and when they introduced randomization options.)

Comments on this page:

By John Wiersba at 2018-06-30 11:31:04:

Having a lower maximum PID also reduces the size of the process table.

By cks at 2018-06-30 14:00:39:

The size of the process table is unrelated to the maximum PID value, except that there's no point to a process 'table' with more slots than there are possible PIDs. Also, I believe that modern Unixes use some more efficient and searchable data structure for current processes than a linear table and they size it dynamically. The V7 days of a plain array of size NPROC are long over, as are the linear searches over that array.

Written on 29 June 2018.
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